Whenever possible, you should use both your resume and your LinkedIn profile when applying for a job. Most jobs still require a resume, but most potential employers and hiring managers will also want to see a solid LinkedIn profile before interviewing you. A final reason for not uploading a resume to LinkedIn is that such action is probably not necessary. Last week I was working with a client who wanted to know where to focus: LinkedIn profile or resume.
LinkedIn will require some adaptations, since you'll want to tell a specific story, but not to the same extent as your resume. While you'll only have one LinkedIn profile that does the overall job of presenting your professional personality to the online world, you should ideally have a different resume for each position you apply for, each carefully designed to fit the requirements of each position. He likes it so much that he goes to LinkedIn to take a deeper look at you, only to find a resume there that doesn't look so much like the one he received. As you set up your LinkedIn profile, you'll notice that the instructions will guide you to complete the same information you should do on your resume.
While your resume and LinkedIn profile are important job search tools, they serve slightly different purposes and are read by slightly different audiences under different conditions.